Early Detection and Diagnostic Approach Through Automated Hematological Analysis for Plasma Cell Leukemia

Joaquin Jerez, Francisca Sanchez, Francisco Flores, Lissette Guajardo, Jose Luis Briones, Carolina Selman


Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a clinically aggressive variant of multiple myeloma, characterized by a high burden of circulating plasma cells, necessitating swift and accurate diagnosis due to its poor prognosis. The conventional diagnostic criteria, including the recent recommendation by the International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) of > 5% circulating plasma cells as positive, have evolved over time. In this context, we present a detailed case report that underscores the pivotal role of the ADVIA 2120 automated hematology counter in detecting plasma cells through cytogram analysis, along with the significance of routine peripheral blood smear analysis and the utility of a large unstained cells (LUCs) threshold of > 4.5% as an indicator for PCL. The case involves a 64-year-old patient with relapsed multiple myeloma and stable paraprotein levels who experienced sudden renal impairment. In this case report, we highlight how ADVIA analysis and cytochemistry assisted in the diagnosis, and further explore ADVIAs utility in this challenging leukemia.

J Med Cases. 2024;15(1):31-36
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jmc4188


Plasma cell leukemia; ADVIA 2120; Circulating plasma cells

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