High Thermal Amplitude Red Blood Cell Agglutinating Cold Type Autoantibodies in a Case of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Pneumonia and Multiorgan Failure

Hatem Hassanein, Julio Hajdenberg

Abstract


A 48-year-old man diagnosed with multiorgan failure and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia developed anemia and polyclonal cold agglutinins that reacted at 37 °C. He recovered after a 2-month hospitalization where he received intensive care support. Cold agglutinins resolved after 2 weeks of supportive care. As red blood cell (RBC) cryptic antigens and warm type autoimmune hemolysis have been recently described in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, we believe this mechanism may also give rise of clinically detectable cold immunoglobulin M (IgM) autoantibodies. Given the thermal amplitude of this particular agglutinin we believe it is possible that in vivo RBC agglutination could contribute to disease severity.




J Med Cases. 2021;12(1):16-17
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jmc3608

Keywords


Cold agglutinins; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; IgM; Autoantibodies; Thermal amplitude

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