Transformation of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia to Acute Biphenotypic Leukemia

Stanislav Ivanov, Purva Sharma, Yash Jobanputra, Yuanming Zhang

Abstract


Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder with clonal proliferation of all myeloid cell lines. The disease typically manifests in three phases: chronic course followed by an accelerated phase and finally a terminal blast crisis. A blast crisis is defined as the presence of > 20% blasts in the peripheral blood or bone marrow. The blasts could be characterized as either myeloid (60-80% of cases) resulting in acute myeloblastic leukemia or lymphoid (20-30% of cases) resulting in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In rare instances, a blast crisis could present with biphenotypic expression for both myeloid and lymphoid blasts. In such cases, about 6-10% of the time, the course of the disease is more aggressive and renders a poorer prognosis especially if there is evidence of extramedullary involvement. We present a case of a 41-year-old woman with history of CML who presented with acute biphenotypic blast crisis with extramedullary involvement in the context of aggressive chemotherapy. Literature review reveals < 10 reported cases of CML with biphasic transformation and only three cases of CML with acute leukemia on presentation. Most cases described are in pediatric patients with varied presentations and none involving extramedullary sites. Mortality rates in such cases are near 100% despite aggressive chemotherapy.




J Med Cases. 2020;11(8):239-242
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jmc3511

Keywords


CML; Biphenotypic leukemia; Blast crisis; Extramedullary involvement

Full Text: HTML PDF
 

Browse  Journals  

     

Journal of clinical Medicine Research

Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Journal of Clinical Gynecology and Obstetrics

World Journal of Oncology

Gastroenterology Research

Journal of Hematology

Journal of Medical Cases

Journal of Current Surgery

Clinical Infection and Immunity

Cardiology Research

World Journal of Nephrology and Urology

Cellular and Molecular Medicine Research

Journal of Neurology Research

International Journal of Clinical Pediatrics

 

 

 

 

 

Journal of Medical Cases, monthly, ISSN 1923-4155 (print), 1923-4163 (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.            
The content of this site is intended for health care professionals.
This is an open-access journal distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted
non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Creative Commons Attribution license (Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International CC-BY-NC 4.0)


This journal follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals,
the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing.

website: www.journalmc.org   editorial contact: editor@journalmc.org
Address: 9225 Leslie Street, Suite 201, Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 3H6, Canada

© Elmer Press Inc. All Rights Reserved.