Hyponatremia and Hyporeninemic-Hypoaldosteronism in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Patient

Rafael Lemus, Joseph D. Tobias

Abstract


Hyponatremia is one of the most commonly encountered electrolyte abnormalities encountered in the pediatric world. Defined as a serum or plasma sodium less than 135 mEq/L, the etiology of hyponatremia is one that can typically be determined by performance of a thorough history. However, occasionally the etiology of a patient’s hyponatremia is more elusive and determined only after laboratory evaluation. We present a 6-year-old girl with a complex medical history including spinal muscular atrophy, tracheostomy and ventilator dependence, who was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit for treatment and evaluation of seizures with hyponatremia that was initially thought to be due to syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone or cerebral salt wasting. However, during her hospital course, it was determined that the hyponatremia was more indicative of a rarer and much less common cause of hyponatremia, hyporeninemic-hypoaldosteronism. The physiological factors controlling serum sodium are reviewed, the etiologies of hyponatremia are presented and the treatment of hyporeninemic-hypoaldosteronism is discussed.




J Med Cases. 2020;11(4):100-102
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jmc3457

Keywords


Hyponatremia; Renin; Aldosterone; Sodium

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