Acute Refractory Hypotension 24 Hours Post-Inferior Vena Cave Filter Insertion Complicated by Early Phlegmasia Cerulea Dolens

Dou-Anne Siew, Daniele Wiseman, Richard Hilsden, Ranko Bulatovic, Raymond Kao

Abstract


We present a case of a 67-year-old man with T4aN3bM0 gastric adenocarcinoma who developed refractory hypotension 24 hours post-inferior vena cave filter (IVCF) insertion for a new finding of pulmonary embolism (PE) and ongoing melena stool. After 18 hours of aggressive 20 L intravenous fluid resuscitation in the ICU followed by vasopressors and intravenous antibiotics, a point-of-care echocardiography did not reveal right ventricular strain and a non-contrast CT scan of the abdominal and pelvis was reported as not remarkable. But his lower limbs became progressively edematous and swollen while his upper limb maintained its normal circumference. At 24 hours post-ICU admission, his lower limbs had worsened with severe pain and pallor. The compartmental pressure measurements were in the high normal ranges. At morning rounds, the complete occlusion of the IVCF causing severe hypovolemic shock was considered and re-review of the non-contrast CT abdomen and pelvis showed complete collapsed IVC above the IVCF. The IVC below the IVCF was distended, as were the common and external iliac veins bilaterally concerning for extensive venous thrombosis and early phlegmasia cerulea dolens (PCD). The patient was treated with local catheter-directed thrombolysis with thrombus maceration and aspiration followed by localized direct tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) infusion and systemic heparin infusion. The patient’s refractory hypotension resolved quickly and had surgery to remove his gastric tumor 8 days post-IVCF insertion. The placement of IVCF in a patient with known malignancy can greatly increase the risk for additional thrombus formation. But in our patient the speed is unprecedented, in which complete vena cava thrombosis (VCT) occurred at the site of the IVCF and below and its mechanism of causing refractory hypotension is rare. The consideration of PCD in a patient with refractory hypovolemic shock post-IVCF insertion followed by aggressive fluid resuscitation and worsening lower limb pain and discoloration remains a rare but important differential diagnosis.




J Med Cases. 2015;6(8):353-357
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14740/jmc2204w

Keywords


Inferior vena cava filter; Vena cava thrombosis; Pulmonary embolism; Refractory hypotension; Phlegmasia cerulea dolens; Catheter-directed thrombolysis

Full Text: HTML PDF
 
Home     |     Log In     |      About     |      Search     |      Current     |      Archives     |      Submit      |     Subscribe


 

     

Aims and Scope

Current Issues

Conflict of Interest

About Publisher

Editorial Board

Archives

Copyright

Company Profile

Editorial Office

Misconduct and Retraction

Permissions

Company Registration

Contact Us

Abstracting and Indexing

ICMJE

Ownership

Instructions to Authors

Access

Declaration of Helsinki

Contact Publisher

Submission Checklist

Reprints

Terms of Use

Company Address

Submit a Manuscript

Open Access Policy

Privacy Policy

Browse Journals

Publishing Fee

Publishing Policy

Disclaimer

Recent Highlights

Peer-Review Process

Publishing Quality

Code of Ethics

Advertising Policy

Manuscript Tracking

Advanced Search

For Librarians

Careers

Publishing Process

Publication Frequency

For Reviewers

Propose a New Journal

       
       

Journal of Medical Cases, monthly, ISSN 1923-4155 (print), 1923-4163 (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.        
The content of this site is intended for health care professionals.
This is an open-access journal distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted
non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Creative Commons Attribution license (Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International CC-BY-NC 4.0)


This journal follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals,
the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing.

website: www.journalmc.org   editorial contact: editor@journalmc.org
Address: 9225 Leslie Street, Suite 201, Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 3H6, Canada

© Elmer Press Inc. All Rights Reserved.

DECLARATION: THIS JOURNAL SITE OUTLOOK IS DESIGNED BY THE PUBLISHER AND COPYRIGHT PROTECTED. DO NOT COPY!