Minoxidil Associated Pericardial Effusion: A Case Report

Steven B. Deutsch, Michael Berlowitz

Abstract


Minoxidil is an antihypertensive that works by directly dilating peripheral vessels. The agent produces vasodilation via a cyclic AMP-mediated effect on arteriolar smooth muscle, with little effect on veins. There have been associations with its use and cause and/or exacerbation of pericardial effusions. This reported adverse effect resulted in a black box warning in the US, which states that minoxidil may cause pericarditis and pericardial effusion that may progress to tamponade. Specifically, patients with renal impairment not on dialysis and individuals with congestive heart failure are reported at higher risk. Here we report a case of a patient with underlying renal disease who presented to the hospital with hypertensive urgency. He developed a pericardial effusion soon after restarting minoxidil, which did not resolve until this medication was discontinued, despite undergoing a pericardial window.




J Med Cases. 2015;6(2):65-67
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14740/jmc1928w

Keywords


Pericardial effusion; Effusion; Antihypertensive; Minoxidil

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